Torn meniscus and spinal fusion are mentioned in this article, perhaps, as being not the best course of action.
by Gina Kolata | The New York Times
“Before a drug can be marketed, it has to go through rigorous testing to show it is safe and effective. Surgery, though, is different. The Food and Drug Administration does not regulate surgical procedures. So what happens when an operation is subjected to and fails the ultimate test — a clinical trial in which patients are randomly assigned to have it or not?
“The expectation is that medical practice will change if an operation turns out not to help.
“It looks as if the onus is on patients to ask what evidence, if any, shows that surgery is better than other options.”